<html> <!-- on server as index.htm --> <!-- 2006 2007 2008 12 01 02 19 20 21 updated 2013.10.16 --> <head><title>Research on Taiwan's Position as a US Insular Area</title> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1"> <meta NAME="description" CONTENT="Research on Taiwan's Position as a US Insular Area"> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="taiwanadvice.css"> </head> <body LINK="#cb0a3a" VLINK="#800080" ALINK="#FF0000" text="black" bgcolor="white" marginheight="0" marginwidth="0" topmargin="0" vspace="0" hspace="0" leftmargin="16"> <center><img src="images/tabanner.jpg" width="590" height="132" border="0" alt="" vspace="3"></center> <table width="75%" align="center" bgcolor=""> <tr> <td><center><font size="5" color="" class="title">Research on Taiwan's Position as a US Insular Area<br> </center></font><br><br><br> <div class="group"> <center> <font size="" color="" class="subtitle">Press Releases & Announcements</font><br><br> </center> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.opednews.com/articles/1/opedne_roger_c__071106_how_congress_should_.htm" target="_blank"><b>How Congress Should Deal with the Taiwan Issue</b></a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="declare.htm" target="_blank"><b>Declaration of the Taiwan Status</b></a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="statusquotai.htm" target="_blank"><b>The Status Quo in the Taiwan Strait as defined by the US Constitution</b></a><br><br> <!-- <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="masspro.htm" target="_blank"><b>Mass Protest Sit-In, in front of AIT, Taipei - 12/07/2007</b></a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://openpr.com/news/33049.html" target="_blank"><b>Taiwan Civil Alliance Press Release - 11/28/2007</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>US Congress must recognize Taiwan's true status under the Constitution</i></font><br><br> --> <!-- <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="tda_apply.htm"><b>APPLICATION FOR US NATIONAL PASSPORT BY ROC PASSPORT HOLDER CURRENTLY RESIDING IN USA</b></a> --> </div><br><br> <br><center><big>TAIWAN AUTONOMY ALLIANCE</big><br><br> <img src="images/bar1.gif" width="501" height="15" border="0" alt=""><br> </center><br> <br><center><a href="framework.htm" target="_blank"><b>The Framework for the Research of the Taiwan Autonomy Alliance</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>After doing a full review of the past sixty years of Taiwan's<br> history, it quickly becomes apparent that many researchers<br> are overlooking a number of important considerations.</i></font></center><br> <center><img src="images/divider.jpg" width="477" height="21" border="0" alt=""></center><br> <br><img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="usa_new.htm" target="_blank"><b>A new recognition of the United States of America</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Washington, D.C. plus Fifty States plus Six Major Overseas Territories</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="rcitizen.htm" target="_blank"><b>Are Taiwanese Persons ROC Citizens? -- In Search of a Legal Basis for ROC Citizenship</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>The legal basis for recognizing Taiwanese persons as having ROC citizenship is open to serious doubt, and it may be true that the ROC on Taiwan does not have anything which can be called a &quot;permanent population.&quot; </i></font><br><br> <div class="group"> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="tc_chart2.htm" target="_blank"><b>Cuba after the Spanish American War, Taiwan after WWII</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>A more detailed determination of Taiwan's international position is obtained by comparison with Cuba in the 1898 to 1902 period</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="comparect.htm" target="_blank"><b>Cuba and Taiwan: Points of Comparison</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>The historical situations of Cuba and Taiwan are similar in many ways </i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="delimavb2a3.htm" target="_blank"><b>Three Insular Cases and the Taiwan Status</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Analysis of three US Supreme Court cases from 1901 actually sheds much light on the complexities of Taiwan's current legal position</i></font><br> </div><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="tw_insular5b.htm" target="_blank"><b>Does Taiwan Meet the Criteria to Qualify as an "Overseas Territory of the United States"?</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>At the present time the USA has five major overseas territories, and it appears that Taiwan is number six</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="fm2710_366.htm" target="_blank"><b>FM 27-10 The Law of Land Warfare, Chapter 6: OCCUPATION, paragraph 366</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>For over thirty years, US Commander in Chief has been the ringmaster of a three-ring circus called the "One China Policy."</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="4th_geneva.htm" target="_blank"><b>The Fourth Geneva Convention, Military Occupation, and Taiwan</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>One of the Few Unresolved Territories From the Post WWII Era</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="bginfo.htm" target="_blank"><b>General Background Information</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>A quick orientation to the basic facts regarding Taiwan's post WWII legal status</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="downesqu2.htm" target="_blank"><b>Important Quotations from Downes v. Bidwell, (US Supreme Court, May 27, 1901)</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Overseas territory may be acquired in many ways, but any peace treaty cession after 1898 involves the doctrine of "unincorporated territory"</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="tda5_3.htm" target="_blank"><b>Important Remarks on the Interpretation of Treaties</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Clauses regarding territorial cession, reparation provisions, etc. are not affected by a war or by subsequent cancellation of a treaty</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="plenary2yp.htm" target="_blank"><b>Is Taiwan a Sovereign and Independent Nation under the terms of the Taiwan Relations Act?</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Under the US Constitution, the recognition of "foreign regimes" is a power reserved for the Commander in Chief alone</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="tw_insular4b.htm" target="_blank"><b>Does Taiwan Meet the Criteria to Qualify as an "Insular Area of the United States"?</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>After the Spanish American War the United States "acquired" four overseas territories, and after WWII it appears that Taiwan was "acquired" in quite a similar manner</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="tw_insular3.htm" target="_blank"><b>Name Rectification and a New Constitution without Immediate Independence</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>A viable scenario is available for Taiwan to achieve name rectification and a new constitution while maintaining peace and harmony in the Taiwan Strait</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="namerect.htm" target="_blank"><b>Name Rectification in Insular Areas of the United States</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Guam achieved name rectification with a legislative act passed by the US Congress, Taiwan could certainly do the same</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="conqudom.htm" target="_blank"><b>On the Subjects of "Conquest" and "Dominion"</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Dozens of US Supreme Court cases support the contention that territory acquired by conquest is legally under the dominion of the conqueror</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="what2do.htm" target="_blank"><b>Our inquiry to the US government -- What are you doing?</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>The USA made three major mistakes in the handling of Taiwanese affairs in the post WWII period</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="supct.htm" target="_blank"><b>Overview of relevant US Supreme Court decisions</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Many US Supreme Court decisions are of excellent reference value for discussing the Taiwan status</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="csovtrust.htm" target="_blank"><b>Points of Confusion over the Cuba Question and Cuba Sovereignty</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>An overview of cession, flag, allegiance, military government, interim status, US Constitution, annexation, and related topics</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="tsovtrust.htm" target="_blank"><b>Points of Confusion over the Taiwan Question and Taiwan Sovereignty up to the present day</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>An overview of cession, flag, allegiance, military government, interim status, US Constitution, annexation, and related topics</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="ques3ans.htm" target="_blank"><b>Questions and Answers on the Taiwan status</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>An in-depth overview of all key US policy considerations</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="harintmcexc.htm" target="_blank"><b>Questions of Sovereignty -- the Montevideo Convention and Territorial Cession</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Although Taiwan fully appears to meet the requirements for being a sovereign country, in fact it falls short in several aspects</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="sfpt_quic2b.htm" target="_blank"><b>Quick Summary of the SFPT's Disposition of "Formosa and the Pescadores"</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>A careful reading of the San Francisco Peace Treaty actually does reveal the complete specifications of Taiwan's international legal position</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="iwojima.htm" target="_blank"><b>Reflections on Taiwan History - from the vantage point of Iwo Jima</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Different scenarios for the military occupation of Iwo Jima illustrate the true reasons why Taiwan is not accepted as a sovereign nation by the international community</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="refl_oct25.htm" target="_blank"><b>Reflections on the Significance of Oct. 25, 1945, by Taiwanese in N. Calif., USA</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>The misunderstanding of the legal significance of the "surrender of Japanese troops" in Taipei is the source of most problems which Taiwan faces in the present era</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="1china_wwii.htm" target="_blank"><b>The Successor Government Theory and the One China Policy</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Putting the events of October 25, 1945, in their proper perspective, the correctness of the One China Policy quickly becomes apparent, while at the same time Taiwan remains separate from the PRC</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="westberlint.htm" target="_blank"><b>Taiwan and Occupied West Berlin</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>A determination of Taiwan's international position is quickly obtained based on the findings in the US v. Tiede ruling</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="ts_glossary.htm" target="_blank"><b>Taiwan Status Glossary</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Commonly used terminology for discussing Taiwanese politics, territorial sovereignty, the laws of war, Taiwan's international legal status, etc.</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="tw_insular6.htm" target="_blank"><b>The Legal Basis for Taiwan's Qualification as an Overseas Territory of the United States</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Most researchers have completely overlooked the essential considerations of how Taiwan qualifies as overseas territory of the USA</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="milgov_end.htm" target="_blank"><b>Territorial Cession after War and the End of Military Government</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>The military government of the principal occupying power does not end with the coming into force of the peace treaty, but continues until supplanted by some other legal arrangement</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="prcutai3.htm" target="_blank"><b>The Territorial Cessions of Puerto Rico, Cuba, Philippines, Guam, & Taiwan</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>The change of sovereignty for these five territorial cessions can be fully described with an identical legal framework</i></font><br><br> <!-- <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="hartzell4.pdf" target="_blank"><b>Understanding the San Francisco Peace Treaty's Disposition of Formosa and the Pescadores</b></a> (pdf)<br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>The SFPT is the highest ranking document of international law regarding the post WWII disposition of Taiwan</i></font><br><br> --> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="uninc_terr.htm" target="_blank"><b>US Overseas Territories</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Most people in the USA are familiar with how the fifty states joined the Union, but unfamiliar with the situation of US overseas territories</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="uninc2g.pdf" target="_blank"><b>Unincorporated Territory under the United States Military Government (USMG)</b></a> (pdf)<br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Cession by Conquest followed by Cession by Treaty in the post-1898 world</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="flagusa.htm" target="_blank"><b>Why Isn't the US Flag Flying over Taiwan?</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>After late April 1952, there is no legal basis for the ROC flag to be flying over Taiwan</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.twclarify.com/taiwan/" target="_blank"><b>Exposing Historical Untruths</b></a><br> <br> <!-- <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="pressconference.htm" target="_blank"><b>Taiwan Defense Alliance Press Conference - 03/27/2006</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>First Demonstration in front of AIT - 03/29/2006</i></font> --><br><br> <br><font size="4" color="red"><center>Charts and Diagrams</center></font><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="timeline.htm" target="_blank"><b>Notable "Historical Events" in the Recent History of Taiwan and the ROC</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>This listing of important historical events over the last 120 years provides a basis for the composition of many types of analytical models regarding Taiwanese legal matters.</i></font><br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="timeline.doc" target="_blank">doc</a> | <a href="timeline.pdf" target="_blank">pdf</a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="examlegal.htm" target="_blank"><b>Examination of Taiwan's Territorial Sovereignty and the ROC's International Legal Position</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>A comparison of the historical and legal claims over Taiwan by Japan, PRC, ROC, and the USA (USMG)</i></font><br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="examlegal.doc" target="_blank">doc</a> | <a href="examlegal.pdf" target="_blank">pdf</a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="legal_auth.htm" target="_blank"><b>Legal Government Authority over Taiwan, and the Allegiance & Nationality of Native Taiwanese Persons</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>A comparison of the views of the United Nations, the US State Dept., international legal scholars, etc. regarding the sovereignty of Taiwan and the allegiance of native Taiwanese persons</i></font><br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="legal_auth.doc" target="_blank">doc</a> | <a href="legal_auth.pdf" target="_blank">pdf</a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="halien.htm" target="_blank"><b>US Insular Law Considerations on the Origin and Classification of Aliens</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Analysis of relevant US Supreme Court cases shows the existence of Type 1, Type 2, and Type 3 aliens under US law, and in fact the latter two qualify for the issuance of US national non-citizen passports</i></font><br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="haliena.doc" target="_blank">doc</a> | <a href="haliena.pdf" target="_blank">pdf</a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="chartabcd.htm" target="_blank"><b>ABCD Chart of Territorial Cession after War</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>In regard to territorial cessions which are the result of war, a very comprehensive discussion may be made with the help of a simple line drawing</i></font><br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="chartabcd.doc" target="_blank">doc</a> | <a href="chartabcd.pdf" target="_blank">pdf</a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="sov_loc.htm" target="_blank"><b>Analysis of the Location of Taiwan's Sovereignty</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Sovereignty never ceases to exist, and the location of Taiwan's sovereignty can be plotted on a simple timeline</i></font><br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="sov_loc.doc" target="_blank">doc</a> | <a href="sov_loc.pdf" target="_blank">pdf</a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <b>The Historical Inter-relationship of post-WWII Administrative Authority over Taiwan</b><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Diagrams showing the relationship between the ROC and USMG, with an analysis of Taiwan's international legal status</i></font><br> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="histor_inter.doc" target="_blank">doc</a> | <a href="histor_inter.pdf" target="_blank">pdf</a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="pagecombo.pdf" target="_blank"><b>Additional Charts</b></a> (pdf)<br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>International Treaty Law, Inter-relationship of Post WWII Administrative Authority, and other details clarifying the Taiwan status</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="inter_finalb.pdf" target="_blank"><b>Taiwan's status in the international community</b></a> (pdf)<br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>An analysis beginning with General Order No. 1 of Sep. 2, 1945</i></font> <!-- &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;expanded full-length research findings <a href="inter_finalb.doc">(doc)</a> | <a href="inter_finalb.pdf" target="_blank">(pdf)</a> --> <br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="halien-combo.pdf" target="_blank"><b>US Territorial Acquisitions as the Result of War</b></a> (pdf)<br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>An Analysis of Spanish American War and WWII in the Pacific cessions</i></font> <br><br> <br><font size="4" color="red"><center>Published Articles</center></font><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.taiwanadvice.com/wnd/taiwansecret.htm" target="_blank">Taiwan's secret: Island is territory of U.S.!</a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2006/03/21/2003298477" target="_blank">Independence? Ask the US</a><br><br> <!-- <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.peaceforum.org.tw/onweb.jsp?webno=3333333306&webitem_no=563" target="_blank">The Taiwan Cession Scandal</a><br><br> --> <!-- <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.peaceforum.org.tw/onweb.jsp?webno=3333333306&webitem_no=578" target="_blank">Taiwan's status in the international community: An analysis beginning with General Order No. 1 of Sep. 2, 1945 (brief introduction)</a>; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;expanded full-length research findings <a href="inter_finalb.doc">(doc)</a> | <a href="inter_finalb.pdf" target="_blank">(pdf)</a><br><br> --> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/FA31Ad05.html" target="_blank">Taiwanese should seek US Constitutional rights </a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://english.epochtimes.com/news/4-12-7/24786.html" target="_blank">A Framework for Taiwan's "Non-Independence"</a><br><br> <!-- <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.taiwantda.org.tw/tda/home/hartzell4.pdf" target="_blank">Understanding the SFPT's Disposition of Formosa and the Pescadores</a><br><br> --> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2005/03/19/2003246919" target="_blank">Taiwan belongs to US</a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2005/05/16/2003254968" target="_blank">Taiwan's legal standing</a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2005/07/04/2003262186" target="_blank">Sovereignty a tough question</a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2005/09/12/2003271367" target="_blank">Sovereignty explored online</a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2005/10/04/2003274424" target="_blank">No grounds for issuing IDs</a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.taiwanadvice.com/history/taiwan4us.htm" target="_blank">Taiwan is US territory</a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2005/10/09/2003275091" target="_blank">Who is in control?</a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.taiwanadvice.com/fapa/lettedcp.htm" target="_blank">Taiwan needs to learn about pragmatism and compromise to survive</a><br><br> <!-- <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.openpr.com/news/29119/US-Congress-must-recognize-Taiwan-as-an-insular-area-of-the-USA.html" target="_blank">Taiwan Civil Alliance Press Release - 09/26/2007</a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>US Congress must recognize Taiwan as an insular area of the USA</i></font> --><br><br> <br><font size="4" color="red"><center>Links</center></font><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="waisgate.htm" target="_blank"><b>Execution of Removal Orders; Countries to Which Aliens May Be Removed</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>The Federal Register for 2005 contains important information about the status of Taiwan</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/27-10/index.html" target="_blank"><b>FM 27-10</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>US Army Field Manual FM 27-10 contains the principal offenses under the laws of war recognized by the United States</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourth_Geneva_Convention" target="_blank"><b>Fourth Geneva Convention</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Geneva Convention (IV) Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War covers all individuals who do not belong to the armed forces, take no part in the hostilities and find themselves in the hands of the enemy or an occupying power</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="gen_order1.htm" target="_blank"><b>Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers General Order No. One</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Shortly after the signing of the Instrument of Surrender in Tokyo Bay, General of the Army Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, issued his General Order no. 1, which was transmitted to Japanese forces by the Imperial General Headquarters. The enclosure is the final form approved by the President of the United States on 17 August 1945 and issued by the Imperial General Headquarters on 2 September 1945.</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hague_Conventions_of_1899_and_1907" target="_blank"><b>Hague Conventions</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>The Hague Conventions are international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, and constitute formal statements regarding the laws of war and war crimes</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://naturalresources.house.gov/about/members.htm" target="_blank"><b>Members of the Committee on Resources, House of Representatives</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>The Members of the House Committee on Resources are in charge of the Insular Affairs of the United States</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_occupation" target="_blank"><b>Military Occupation</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>The laws of occupation are subset of the customary laws of warfare of the post-Napoleonic period </i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/intam03.asp" target="_blank"><b>Montevideo Convention</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>The Montevideo Convention on Rights and Duties of States offers a defintion of "the state as a person of international law," but is incomplete because it totally ignores the complications of (1) military occupation, (2) governments in exile, or (3) limbo cessions in peace treaties, etc.</i></font><br><br> <!-- <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="montconv.htm" target="_blank"><b>Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States and Military Occupation under the Law of War</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>By diagramming the situation of Cuba after the Spanish American War, and using a similar structure to discuss related situations of military occupation, it is possible to show the inadequacy of the four criteria of the Montevideo Convention in making a determination of what really qualifies as a "sovereign nation"</i></font><br><br> --> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.taiwandocuments.net/sanfrancisco01.htm" target="_blank"><b>San Francisco Peace Treaty</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>As a Senate-ratified international treaty, the San Francisco Peace Treaty's position under US law is on the same level as that of the US Constitution, which is &quot;the supreme law of the land&quot; </i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.taiwandocuments.net/taipei01.htm" target="_blank"><b>Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>The &quot;Treaty of Taipei&quot; is a subsidiary peace treaty drafted under the authority of the San Francisco Peace Treaty</i></font><br><br> <!-- <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="ctc.htm" target="_blank"><b>Taiwan Caucus Members in House of Representatives</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>As of late 2005, the House's Taiwan Caucus contained 150 Members</i></font><br><br> --> <!-- <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.fapa.org/TaiwanCaucus/SENATE/index.html" target="_blank"><b>Taiwan Caucus Members in the Senate</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Senate Taiwan Caucus was established on September 17, 2003. Senators Allen and Johnson serve as the co-chairs of the caucus. Like their counterpart in the House of Representatives (Congressional Taiwan Caucus), Senate Taiwan caucus is bi-partisan and its membership is growing steadily. Below is the list of the Senate Taiwan Caucus as of 2005: </i></font><br><br> --> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://constitution.findlaw.com/" target="_blank"><b>US Constitution</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>The United States Constitution, ratified in 1789, was influenced by the British constitutional system, and has become a benchmark for republican and codified constitutions written thereafter</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="constcanon.htm" target="_blank"><b>Why the Canon Should be Expanded to Include the Insular Cases and the Saga of American Expansionism</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Contemporary constitutional law casebooks or treatises typically have no mention at all of the US Supreme Court's Insular Cases and the origin of the doctrine of unincorporated territory</i></font><br><br> <br><font size="4" color="red"><center>Book Introductions</center></font><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="tda5_2.htm" target="_blank">Foreign in a Domestic Sense: Puerto Rico, American Expansion, and the Constitution</a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="https://www.amazon.com/Research-Handbook-Treaties-Handbooks-International/dp/0857934775" target="_blank">Research Handbook on the Law of Treaties</a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.constitution.org/vattel/vattel.htm" target="_blank">The Law of Nations (1758) by Emerich de Vattel</a><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.oup.co.uk/isbn/0-19-826573-5" target="_blank">Recognition of Governments in International Law With Particular Reference to Governments in Exile</a><br><br> <br><font size="4" color="red"><center>Petitioning</center></font><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="rohrab.htm" target="_blank"><b>Letter to Congressman Dana Rohrabacher (R - CA)</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>46th District Of California, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives</i></font><br><br> <!-- <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="pombo.htm" target="_blank"><b>Open Letter to Congressman Richard Pombo (R - CA)</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Chairman, Committee on Resources, House of Representatives</i></font><br><br> --> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="insular-chair.htm" target="_blank"><b>Open Letter to Congresswoman Donna M. Christensen (D-VI)</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Chairwoman of the Subcommittee on Insular Affairs, House of Representatives</i></font><br><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="liu_th.htm" target="_blank"><b>An Overview of Important New Research on Taiwan's International Legal Position - Liu to Royce</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Sample Petition Letter to a Member of Congress</i></font><br><br> <!-- <br><font size="4" color="red"><center>Court Case</center></font><br> <img src="images/40_80_99.gif" width="14" height="14" border="0" alt=""> <a href="http://www.taiwankey.net/dc/" target="_blank"><b>Complaint for Declaratory Relief</b></a><br> <font size="" color="#595959"><i>Based on the authoritative research on this website, a court case was filed in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia on Oct. 24, 2006</i></font> --><br><br> <br> </td> </tr> </table> <center> <a href="#top">Top</a><br><br><br> <font size="2" color="#000080">This Site Copyright &copy; 2002-2016 &nbsp; <!-- <a href="bio.htm" target="_blank">Richard W. Hartzell</a> -->.<br> <i>This updated website has been active since Jan. 15, 2006.</i><br> All Rights Reserved.<br> <!-- Graphic Design: Jean Wang | Webmaster: <a href="mailto:jjwwon@yahoo.com"><font color=#800517>J.J.</font></font></a> --><br> </center><br><br> <script type="text/javascript"> var gaJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? "https://ssl." : "http://www."); document.write(unescape("%3Cscript src='" + gaJsHost + "google-analytics.com/ga.js' type='text/javascript'%3E%3C/script%3E")); </script> <script type="text/javascript"> var pageTracker = _gat._getTracker("UA-4578661-2"); pageTracker._initData(); pageTracker._trackPageview(); </script> </body> </html>